|Science Articles & Information|
Get Hot on Combustion
Energy in the form of heat is obtained when fuel is burnt in air. The release of this heat energy can be slow or can be very rapid.
When fuel oil is sprayed as a fine mist in the boiler burners, it is able to burn at a relatively slow rate. When fuel is sprayed into the cylinders of diesel engines, the fuel burns in such a rapid rate that explosions occur. Fortunately, these explosions are protected from persons as these engines are called internal combustion engines.
Whatever type of combustion, it is a chemical reaction between carbon, hydrogen, sulphur and oxygen.
C + O2 = CO2
Air consists of 77% Nitrogen and 23% Oxygen by mass. For a particular design of combustion air, the theoritical oxygen multiplied by 100/23 will give the theoritical air required.
How do you measure a good combustion. The percentage of Oxygen or Carbon Dioxide will tell us whether the combustion is good or not good.
The lower the Oxygen content in the exhaust gas, the better the combustion. It means that the Oxygen has been fully utilized for burning. It also means that the fuel air ratio is set properly. Too much excess air is no good because the heat generated will be lost through the exhaust trunking.
Boilers are able to achieve a good combustion. Oxygen content percentage of up to 5% or lower can be achieved.
Internal combustion engines have a lot of excess air because mixing of the combustible mixture is a challenge for them. Furthermore, the combustion is meant to provide the power to drive the pistons.
The burning of sulphur in the fuel is a problem for combustion equipment. This is because the byproducts of combustion will create sulphur dioxide and sulphur trioxide. These will react with the water, also a byproduct of combustion of Hydrogen to form sulphuric acid and sulphurous acid.
SO3 + H2O = H2SO4
However, the effects of corrosion, called low temperature corrosion can be avoided by keeping the temperature above the dewpoint. That means to keep the exhaust temperature high so that water droplets will not form on the exhaust ducts.
Folks, get hot!
Until next time?
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Increasing Human Brain Power, Concept
Is it possible to increase the human brainpower? Not just become smarter, but actually more power and energy? Some say yes and NASA is working on ways to do just that, the applications are endless; from boosting the immune system to higher cognitive processing.
51 Easy, Eco-Friendly Ways You Can Help Sustain Planet Earth
1. Air dry your laundry.
Efficient Transportation Systems
We see in the organized world of the Japanese with their transit systems and floating airports and super engineering anti-Tsunami bridges many ideas in the theory of flow, which assists every part of their society and civilizations. They are masters of the flow of transportations and work hard to perfect every aspect and detail of their transportation system.
Controls - The Building Blocks of Automation
As man learns to make machines that no longer rely on animal or human power, he finds that he has to develop some means to manage and control them. Powerful machines let loosed by themselves will create havoc and destruction.
Heads Up Displays and Computer Human Interface
Heads Up Displays For High Tech Human Interface Need More Sensory Input to the Brain. We have been studying the HUD ? Heads Up Display units for the Apache Attack Helicopter, F-18, Business Jets and thought of it's uses for soccer moms in SUVs in the fog, over the road trucks, Race Cars, Speed boats, Heavy Equipment is crucial mining endeavors.
Methods of Improving Boiler Efficiency
With the rising cost of fuel prices, industries that use steam boilers for heating or power generation are hard pressed to operate at peak efficiencies.
Natural Gas Cost Increases; Want to know more?
A Thorn in the Side for American Business and Consumers - Natural Gas Shortages and Cost Issues
Will Clones Run the World?
In the US it appears that we have decided that "life is not for sale" and that the cloning debate is over and our scientists are forbidden by law from attempting to clone humans. In other countries they are currently trying and will most likely continue to try until they get it right. Will those countries which move forward in human cloning be able to force their will on free markets and rise to power faster since they will have the abilities of entangled brains and abilities of basic thought transfer? Such skills will be quite an advantage indeed. Will such countries have stronger corporations and create wealth faster than our corporations? Will the multi-national conglomeration corporations of the World continue to be so large it will not be significant until way into the future? Will more countries become run completely by super dynasty clone families, will they run the world?
Life on Mars, Warm Water Under our Ice Caps, Evidence, Microbes under Our Feet
Well many people out there are asking is there really life on Mars? Our Thinking Group has been asking not if, what type?
Laser Attack, EA, Scalar Attack on Composite Manufactured Vehicles
More and more future fighting vehicles introduced at the Military Trade Shows in Pakistan, China, Israel seem to contain composite material as integral components to save weight. This composite material is lightweight and has many advantages to the high cost of exotic alloy. Composite is also free from the corrosive properties of aluminum and rusting properties of iron. It is for this reason we will world fighting vehicles switch to composite components whenever heavy armor is not needed. We will also see a trend towards ceramic-composite combinations in substitute for steel armor. Lighter war vehicles, harder to see on radar, lighter and faster, greater range and longer lasting to deal with seasonal changes on the surface of the planet causing rust and corrosion.
What is Dowsing?
Dowsing is definitely an intuitive art and one of the oldest forms of divination in the world. Perhaps the oldest and most familiar image we have a dowser is what is called a field or map dowser. This person walks over a landscape using a Y shaped or forked stick (sometimes called a doodlebug) to locate subterranean sources of water, oil or even precious minerals. The stick vibrates, crosses or shakes when the substance is found. Some dowsers will use two sticks held in one hand, and when the sticks cross, it signifies that a subtle astral or geopathic force has located the natural resource. This kind of dowsing is also used to locate things such as buried treasure, lost persons, missing jewelry and stray golf balls!
Cord Blood and Its Uses
Cord blood is the blood left in the umbilical cord and placenta after the birth of the child and is collected after the cord has been cut off. The umbilical cord is routinely discarded with the placenta after a child is born. It is also called placental blood. Cord blood has lots of blood producing stem cells which can be frozen and later used for transplants. Cord blood is genetically unique to the child and the family. Now researchers have found that it can be used to treat many diseases.
A Wake Up Call To The Scientific Community
Nature has millions of intervowen interrelationships among the numerous flora and fauna. Such relationships are the basis for the food webs and food pyramids. These food webs and pyramids can give us a broad idea that organisms interact with each other for their food, shelter and mating. Each specific interrelationship if studied in depth can be very interesting and brings to light significant facts of our sorroundings and the importance of each and every living being on this earth and its function in sustaining the ecological processes. In fact if the entire nature is considered one machine, each and every living being has its own role in smooth running of this machine. But knowingly and unknowingly, we have not taken care or forced to destroy such interrelationships in the path of 'development'.
Remote Control Bacteria; We Can Not Allow That.
Remote Control Bacteria. Why not, we have remote control everything. Controlling RNA, DNA, Proteins and enzymes. By turning on and off the Riboswitches:
The As Have it
ALTERNATE AND PARALLEL UNIVERSES: - The modern science of physics has opened many pathways or doorways to the infinite possibilities of 'creation'. Evolution is not the only operational factor in our life and its purpose. Martin Rees is a world recognized astronomer and more. He has recently proposed that there have been many universes and their other components which have been created. The news reports have said that it was a matter of trial and error, until it became right. If so, who can say it is RIGHT at this moment? The theory of the mystics that is covered in 'Harmonic Convergence' relates to this possibility. There are universes outside the known universe according to science as it now stands.
Electrical Industrys Protection - Destruction for Good
Destruction! Blow Up! Eliminate! These are not pleasant words!
Building an Ice House on Mars
There is ice at the Martian Poles, one of the poles has water ice in abundance. Such an ice over region could easily be converted into a habitat for a Martian Colony of human explorers. Taking humans to Mars is not such an easy task, keeping them alive once there even harder, bringing them back not easy at all. The polar water ice cap may hold the key to building a successful colony on Mars.
Droughts and Salt Water Canals Random Thoughts
We need solutions to our drought crisis in this country. There are simple but expensive solutions; for instance; Desalination, salt water rivers and conservation strategies. Now before you accusing me of hyping any of the newest technologies or try to tell me it costs too much, let me explain something about the Earth's water supply. Only 3% of the Earth's Water is fresh. This includes the water and moisture in the clouds, underground reservoirs, rivers, lakes, streams and pipelines. So if we keep increasing the population of mammals we will need to have a larger supply of fresh water. The oceans are full and the atmosphere converts this to fresh water and then it rains and we collect it. So far we end up flooding areas when we make it rain or we fail. We use up all the fresh water in the waterways, which pass through our cities and we waste the rest on things that are not important unless you love what Tiger Woods does. People say it will cost too much to take water from the ocean where 70 percent of our population lives and turn it into fresh water to serve that population's growing needs. Well I say it does not cost that much at all. Water generally and it depends where you live in the US, costs about $ 1.60-2.10 per 743 gallons, (a unit of water) do not ask me about our system of measurement I am still trying to figure out how much a fathom, knot, bushel or pint is. Apparently the scientists have not figured out the difference between a yard and a meter either judging by the crash of the last Mars Probe a few years back, even though I do not believe it actually crashed.
Rodent Populations are Half within 3 miles of a Railroad Track
About a month ago, I was helping a friend collect meteorites. We picked out a grid pattern and started walking six to 9 feet apart with metal detectors looking for the iron-nickel meteorites which are quite common here on the Earth's surface The grid is large and takes many days to even make a dent in it and each time we are able to collect some meteorites. One thing we noticed was that we would scare little rodents in bushes and they would take off running. Yet as we approached railroad tracks we noticed fewer and fewer rodents living there.
The Bill Clinton Neuron And The Sweat Neuron
In the world of science, there is excited speculation about recent discoveries of individual neurons in the brain, with striking capabilities. They had discovered a neuron, which fired on recognition of just one special face. Scientists spotted this using microelectrodes, which could identify the firing of a single neuron. Buried deep in the amygdala of a female patient, they discovered the so-called "Bill Clinton" neuron. The cell fired on recognizing three very different images of the former President; a line drawing of a laughing Clinton; a formal painting depicting him; and a photograph of him in a crowd. The cell remained mute when the patient viewed images of other politicians and celebrities. In other patients, scientists found similar cells that responded selectively to actors, including Jennifer Anniston, Brad Pitt, and Halle Berry.
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