|Science Articles & Information|
Positive Effects of Carbon Dioxide for Plant Growth
Many articles have been written about the negative effects of carbon dioxide. Sick Building Syndrome, loss of concentration due to high levels of carbon dioxide, asphyxiation in breweries or wine cellars, all these things spring to mind when we hear the magic phrase carbon dioxide. Yet, perhaps today when Venus passes across the face of the Sun, we should remember that our original atmosphere consisted of nitrogen and carbon dioxide. Free oxygen is something that is not really chemically possible. Yet we have it as a result of plant life busily photosynthesising and converting carbon dioxide into oxygen during daylight hours. This is the original use of solar energy!
Plants require carbon dioxide to grow and why not help them by increasing the level of carbon dioxide? Normally, this is something that is undesirable, since carbon dioxide is the original greenhouse gas, as our neighbouring planet Venus can testify. But in a controlled, genuine greenhouse environment, there is no real reason why the level of carbon dioxide should not be enhanced in some way.
Indeed, tests have shown that increasing the level of carbon dioxide in a greenhouse to 550 ppm will accelerate plant growth by 30 - 40 %. The natural level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is around 450 ppm, having increased from about 250 ppm in the last ice-age, so this slight increase may not appear significant at first sight. The point of the matter is that the level of carbon dioxide in the average greenhouse with the ventilation system closed will drop sharply due to uptake by the plants and will lie around 150 - 200 ppm if nothing is done about it. In summer the ventilation system will be open and the fresh air circulation will augment the level to a useful degree. But what about those long, cold, dark northern winters? Most commercial greenhouses will have lighting and heating systems to encourage plant growth, but you still cannot open the ventilation and allow the cold outside air into your heated greenhouse without losing all the early crops. The only real solution is to augment the natural level of carbon dioxide in some way. Where it is used, the general rule of thumb is to augment by about 1000 ppm when the sun is shining (or all the lights are on!) and keep the level around 400 ppm during times of darkness. This will require monitoring, since there are so many variable factors involved and a simple control unit using an infrared sensor will be able to keep the concentration of gas constant at all times.
Rate of consumption varies with crop, light intensity, temperature, stage of crop development and nutrient level. An average consumption level is estimated to be between 0.12 - 0.24 kg/hr/100 m2 of greenhouse floor area. The higher rate reflects the typical usage for sunny days and a fully-grown crop. This equates to roughly 150 litres of carbon dioxide per hour.
There are many processes that naturally and unavoidably produce carbon dioxide: Fermentation and combustion are two classic examples. In temperate zones it is necessary to heat a greenhouse (glasshouse is just another word for the same thing), and this heating will almost always involve the burning of fossil fuels, producing carbon dioxide. This leads to the natural urge to re-circulate the exhaust gas from the heating system into the greenhouse and so achieve a double advantage for the plants. This will require careful monitoring of the flue gas to ensure that there are at the most only traces of carbon monoxide being passed into the greenhouse. This is not only bad for the plants but also potentially lethal to the people working there! Such technology is available with gas monitors that will measure the carbon monoxide concentration continuously and have analogue outputs that can be used to regulate the burners or operate a trip to switch the unit off should problems occur. The combination of breweries with greenhouse systems is also serious business in some areas. Generally, these methods are to be approved and should really be worthy of government support. Not only are they producing crops, they are removing a pollutant that would otherwise be vented into the atmosphere.
Monitoring of the added carbon dioxide is essential, however, since high concnetrations of carbon dioxide can lead to dizziness or even unconciousness of the personnel. Some plants will require higher levels of nutrients to compensate for some of the changes that occur. Particularly tomatoes and violets are sensitive to increased levels of carbon dioxide, hence the need for constant monitoring of the ambient concentration.
Simon Fowler studied Mechanical Enineering at City University in London, UK and now works in Vienna, Austria for madur electronics, a manufacturer of infrared sensors. http://www.madur.com/
I am beginning to wonder if scientists have been getting it all wrong. All this time, people have been worried about the Ozone, or a giant asteroid, or some breakout of a bio-hazardous agent by a terrorist organization being the doom of mankind. We have spent all this time looking outward instead of inward towards ourselves.
Lighter Than Air Tubular Flight
I propose a lighter than air tubular unmanned mini blimp be designed. Such a craft would have many great applications. A flying UAV tube balloon snake for unlimited range and hang time for surveillance and communication, could use the fluid dynamic theories of a siphon to propel itself around and stay aloft at designated pre-determined way points. (have drawings).
Drought Worsened in Some States in 2004; 2005 will be very telling
The drought of the West appears to be the worst in over 500 years. This is what the scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey are now saying and we have been reading in America's Newspapers.
MAVs, UAVs, and Insect Flight Characteristics
MAVs and UAVs and Insect Flight Characteristics seem to have a lot in common. Millions of years of evolution in nature seem to have been one of the greatest engineering schools around. So now the schools are looking to nature. However as we study nature, nature is not good enough. The world is not good enough that is why all species are continually either modifying to fill their niches or they perish. Designing machines after nature because it looks cool maybe fine. But a Mosquitoes job is to suck blood and reproduce and fly around to it's meal and egg laying.
Servicing Missions to the Hubble Space Telescope
The Hubble Space Telescope received its first Service Mission in December 1993. The missions most important objective was to install two devices to fix the Hubble Telescope's vision problem . The space telescope could not focus all the light from an object to a single sharp point because Hubble's primary mirror was incorrectly shaped. Instead it saw a fuzzy halo around objects it observed in space.
Pre-empt the Radiation or Die
At West Point, in a speech, President George W. Bush shared the doctrine of pre-emption with his cadets that he articulated as a countermeasure to September 11 attacks. Pre-emption, defined as the anticipatory use of force in the face of an imminent attack, has long been accepted as legitimate and appropriate under international law. In the New National Security Strategy, however, the Bush's first administration was broadening the meaning to encompass preventive war as well, in which force may be used even without the evidence. This particular idea had still been severely debated and really staled but Professor Lawrie Challis's invention has brought the President's angle back into perspective.
The Best and Worst of April?s Weather
If Johannes Kepler, the renowned 17th century astronomer and discoverer of the planetary laws of motion, could speak from the heavenlies, he might have a few words of wisdom to share with the National Weather Service. Although Kepler's name is not normally associated with meteorology, he was quite the weather forecaster in his day. His first claim to fame, by the way, was not due to his discovery of those planetary laws, but because of his accurate long-range weather forecast of the severe winter that put Styermark, Germany on ice in 1593.
UAV Mini - Torpedo Bombers for Eliminating Hydro Cushioned Water Craft
UAVs can carry cargo, some of the very tiny UAV units can hold up to 11 lbs. Which is not much, however. A one-way UAV could fly over a river that is used for transporting troops and supplies by your enemy via hydro-craft, which can hover over regular water. These mines would normally be set by Navy Seals, by using small robotic units we can save the risk of life unless it is totally necessary.
Space Travel - Human Innate Bonding to ELF ? Extremely Low Frequencies of Planet Earth
Human innate bonding to ELF ? Extremely Low Frequencies of planet Earth will be a problem in space travel for the future. How do we know this? We know because insanity seems to very often coincide with mental illness. And the human beings which travel great distances will be subjected to many other problems such as; radiation, calcium breakdown, Closter phobia, space weather, loneliness, food rationing, lack of sex, stir craziness, etc.
Droughts and Salt Water Canals Random Thoughts
We need solutions to our drought crisis in this country. There are simple but expensive solutions; for instance; Desalination, salt water rivers and conservation strategies. Now before you accusing me of hyping any of the newest technologies or try to tell me it costs too much, let me explain something about the Earth's water supply. Only 3% of the Earth's Water is fresh. This includes the water and moisture in the clouds, underground reservoirs, rivers, lakes, streams and pipelines. So if we keep increasing the population of mammals we will need to have a larger supply of fresh water. The oceans are full and the atmosphere converts this to fresh water and then it rains and we collect it. So far we end up flooding areas when we make it rain or we fail. We use up all the fresh water in the waterways, which pass through our cities and we waste the rest on things that are not important unless you love what Tiger Woods does. People say it will cost too much to take water from the ocean where 70 percent of our population lives and turn it into fresh water to serve that population's growing needs. Well I say it does not cost that much at all. Water generally and it depends where you live in the US, costs about $ 1.60-2.10 per 743 gallons, (a unit of water) do not ask me about our system of measurement I am still trying to figure out how much a fathom, knot, bushel or pint is. Apparently the scientists have not figured out the difference between a yard and a meter either judging by the crash of the last Mars Probe a few years back, even though I do not believe it actually crashed.
Natural Gas Cost Increases; Want to know more?
A Thorn in the Side for American Business and Consumers - Natural Gas Shortages and Cost Issues
That Dust on Your Car May Soon Be Smarter Than You Think?
Here is a thought to get this topic started. A thought on a smart dust design. The smart dust will have to be able to stay airborne for long eriods of time. I was contemplating cleaning off a car which actually had hightech SmartDust on it? God made dirt on the first day right? Well, yes as the story goes he made the Heavens and the Earth and he made that out of dirt. So as man becomes God, he will need to make first things first. So perhaps the thought of making dust is actually a very noble step for mankind indeed.
UAV Defense, UAV Recovery, Material Research, Infected Birds with Virus Plastic Net
When Manufacturing nets of any type: Going for strength and light weight is a challenge and it has been the compromise of many for so long in the battle to find the strongest net, sheet of plastic to mimic that of a Spider's web we have endured to no end. It is always and shall be for some time one of man's most important conquests in many of his fields of endeavors such as fishing. Due to friction of fluid in water, air; All of which is considered in terms of drag (parasite or induced) obstacles which man has to overcome this for speed and stability to properly position.
Building an Ice House on Mars
There is ice at the Martian Poles, one of the poles has water ice in abundance. Such an ice over region could easily be converted into a habitat for a Martian Colony of human explorers. Taking humans to Mars is not such an easy task, keeping them alive once there even harder, bringing them back not easy at all. The polar water ice cap may hold the key to building a successful colony on Mars.
Crop Circles and Genetic Knowledge
The crop circle enigma is not always a hoax. I am not able to see how someone could do a massive design overnight in the cases where the plants have their stems broken from within. Yes, that is the case in what I consider the real crop circles. The wheat or other plants have the stalk exploded from within and the stalks can be bent at a distance up the stalk which would not happen if the use of weighty rollers was applied to them. Thus we are able to speculate many things but I see no reason for it to be aliens or at least not a visit in physical form by extra-terrestrials.
Magnetic Propulsion for GI Joe?
Thought of the day. I talked to an old guy who gave me this idea, he wanted to create a magnet propelled anti-gravity and directional control craft. MPAGDCV. Here is the thought a platform with a magnet attracting steel front a rear panel s placed on a platform with a seat. A ring of a gyro is placed with it's axis on the CG-Center of gravity. The ring spins around the seat platform with a magnet on the apex of the arch in front and on the back is a magnet faced backwards which repels. As the ring spins the forward momentum flips the magnet over on each side depending on the direction of intended travel.
Hibernate Enemy with Gas Cloud
Scientists have discovered chemicals, which cause humans to go into a hibernation type state similar to our mammal cousins the bear. This discovery has many killer applications from first responders slowing the bio-systems of those who are seriously injured to long-term space flight or even stopping a civil unrest or riot, which has gotten out of control.
Ancient Navigation and Mapping
DR. SENTIEL ROMMEL:
Pre-Neolithic Calendars (Accurate)
Braden is quite wrong when he says the initiations to this knowledge began about two thousand years ago. I think that is when some people emboldened by the earlier Pythagorean partial inclusion of the knowledge into Therapeutae systems like the Essenes, started to study it and write something about it. However, the prohibition on sharing this information which is said to have still been a matter of summary execution in the time of Plato, probably started ten thousand years earlier.
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