|Science Articles & Information|
Paternity Testing Regulation: Help or Hindrance?
The internet has opened up opportunities for many DNA laboratories to distribute free paternity test kits in hopes of a sale from returned samples. In Europe, France is the only country that regulates how paternity tests are conducted. Citizens of other European nations are free to satisfy their own curiosities and nagging doubts, while French citizens jump through hoops. Regulation and red tape protect some while hindering others.
Pro: In 1941, the French government adopted a law called "Accouchement Sous X," or Childbirth Under X. This law allows a French woman to enter a hospital anonymously by signing her name as an X. Her identity and her child's identity are both kept anonymous. For a mother who has given birth anonymously, for whatever reason, a paternity test would surely break the anonymity. Mothers seeking refuge under the X law will undoubtedly seek the same protection under Article 16.
Alleged fathers will also benefit from this law because assessing paternity usually means child support payments. Years of due arrears may be charged to an alleged father if it is found that he is the biological father. Having a lawyer involved in the process for each case's beginning will give greater credibility to the test and its results. The transition from results to court decision is also smoothed and hastened by having a court-appointed lawyer.
Con: It's hard to say just how many people have forgone a paternity test because of the red tape involved. The majority of single mothers are in a less-than-favorable financial condition and probably can't afford to hire a lawyer.
Placing restriction on business operations shrinks the market, decreases competition, and drives up prices.
Pro: DNA laboratories are able to sell a state utility service to virtually anyone through the postal service. The margin on DNA tests is high, and free home kits can be sent across international borders at a very low cost. French labs are much fewer than the number of labs in other countries, and the likelihood of business being conducted outside France is quite high. Large international laboratories could predatorily price their tests to the point where conducting a DNA test can no longer be done locally. DNA labs that are set up inside France will benefit from this legislation because French citizens are not permitted to conduct a test outside of the country. Although industry protection was not the reason for adding this article to the civil code, French labs capture the entire national market for paternity testing.
Con: Article 16 almost creates a public sector for paternity testing. The market size is reduced because fewer people will be willing conduct a test because of the increased complexity. In other countries, such as the UK and Germany, an individual can conduct a test almost whimsically. Having this new technology available to the general public at an affordable price has expanded the market size and allowed businesses to grow. In France, prices are relatively fixed. Consumers make choices based more on location than on price and quality.
The legislation also creates an entry barrier for other companies to enter the French market. In order for a laboratory in the UK to compete in France, it would need to expand operations and build inside the country. This infeasibility deters many businesses from expanding into France.
To some, red tape is an annoyance; to others, it is due process. Although Article 16-11 forces French citizens to undergo a more lengthy process when conducting a paternity test and hinders business competition, the article serves the best interest of the people. To make this legislation less burdensome, the court-appointed lawyer should be paid for by the state. This will allow more citizens to find the answers to their family-relation questions.
Rodent Populations are Half within 3 miles of a Railroad Track
About a month ago, I was helping a friend collect meteorites. We picked out a grid pattern and started walking six to 9 feet apart with metal detectors looking for the iron-nickel meteorites which are quite common here on the Earth's surface The grid is large and takes many days to even make a dent in it and each time we are able to collect some meteorites. One thing we noticed was that we would scare little rodents in bushes and they would take off running. Yet as we approached railroad tracks we noticed fewer and fewer rodents living there.
Lets Get Dirty
There is no right way of saying this, so I'll say it the wrong way: in order to stay healthy we must stay dirty. Now, that didn't sound right, did it? Put it this way: if we all lived in sealed apartments where only the purest air was pumped in and every trace of bacteria were eliminated from our food we probably wouldn't last long when we stepped outside.
Mars Surface Exploration and AFF
As we study more and more about Mars we know there is life. Unfortunately in many regions of the planet it is not so evident. There is evidence of past water in abundance and perhaps some ground water under the surface; this is where we will find life. I propose using some Earth based technologies, which are over a decade old to map mars at a much more personal level. I propose using satellites and Automated Satellite Following Systems, which will control the paths of five or more UAVs in a swarm and grid pattern.
51 Easy, Eco-Friendly Ways You Can Help Sustain Planet Earth
1. Air dry your laundry.
Shooting Down a UAV in Flight
Shooting Down an Enemy UAV so it cannot give away military movement intelligence.
UAV Blimps Powered By Hydro-Electric Motors Using Hydro and Fluid Dynamic Theory
I believe it is possible to design a pilot-less hydro-electric blimp which would have a propulsion system which never requires fuel and would be based on a Perpetual Motion Machine which uses fluid dynamics in a hydro-electric. First the shape of this thing would be similar to the new shopping mall shade cover on the Las Vegas Strip. An oblong flying saucer shape would be two of these, which would be stacked like pancakes. They would be apart by 1/3 the length of each symmetrically shaped oblong saucers shaped lighter than air blimps. In the middle would be an hourglass shaped unit. Attaching the two blimps, similar to the struts on a Baby Great Lakes Acrobatic Aircraft.
Big Bang or Lots of Big Fire Crackers?
There are many who talk about the Big Bang Theory. Although no one can be sure what went bang? Steven Hawking suggests it does not matter what went bang, because we will never know, so let's think on things we can know. Interesting comments indeed, others suggest you cannot have a big bang without having something that went bang. Therefore they say the big bang theory is hogwash. Still others say God created it all? Yet the critics of that concept say; "Well who created God then?"
The Debate About Cloning
There are two types of cloning. One involves harvesting stem cells from embryos ("therapeutic cloning"). These are the biological equivalent of a template. They can develop into any kind of mature functional cell and thus help cure many degenerative and auto-immune diseases.
Megaliths and Pole Flips
The changes in the earth magnetic field away from the 7.8 cycle rhythm that it has been for a long time is something that may be a result of the things man has done to the Earth. It is more likely part of the cyclical nature of the sun's effect on the Earth but we must keep an open mind. I used to think there was some possibility that the reason the Mammoths in the northern climes had buttercups inside their fast frozen mouths had to do with a pole shift of a physical nature. I do not think that is the case anymore. I present these thoughts for your careful consideration.
Transducers - The Remarkable Changers
Complex control systems all make use of signals that can be easily measured and altered remotely. Automatically operated machines or actuators need to be powered either by electrical motors, pneumatic or hydraulic cylinders.
Sound From Transmission Power Lines Should Never Be Wasted
High Tension Power lines and transmission line towers make noise, we have all heard this. But Sound can be a source of energy in that it can be harvested to make steam in my humble opinion. Here is my thought then; Large Capacitors which "hmm" or "BZZZZZZZ" can be surrounded by another shell which has within it another an enclosed cavity that has inside of it Helium. The sound waves will penetrate the wall of the enclosed cavity or horse shoe shaped enclosed tank, which is thin, but strong and holds in the helium. It can be made of carbon fiber and composite but coated with a ceramic or glass type coating. The tank can also be on the ground and the enclosure has a tube down to the ground where the sound will travel and using harmonic and bouncing the sound around the outside of the container where the Helium is trapped it will enhance the sound which surrounds it.
Augmented Reality and 3D 360-Vision
We need a better vision system for the battlespace; an augmented reality 360-degree 3D device would solve many problems. This device could be very useful in wartime while flying a helicopter and much has been studied and many innovations have occurred with HUD in aviation. Whereas 360-degree informational awareness is of value, even more valuable would be a disassociated informational awareness.
UAV Mini - Torpedo Bombers for Eliminating Hydro Cushioned Water Craft
UAVs can carry cargo, some of the very tiny UAV units can hold up to 11 lbs. Which is not much, however. A one-way UAV could fly over a river that is used for transporting troops and supplies by your enemy via hydro-craft, which can hover over regular water. These mines would normally be set by Navy Seals, by using small robotic units we can save the risk of life unless it is totally necessary.
Confusing MAV Optic Flow Sensors In flight Using Mobiles
Using Shapes on Mobiles to confuse optic flow sensors in Micro Air Vehicles appears to be feasible. Today we are studying the flight paths of Bats, Insects even birds to build and fly miniature UAVs; called Micro Air Vehicles or MAVs. There is significant research being done on this. The goal is to have mini MAVs the size of dragonflies, about 15 CM, which are autonomous and can fly through tunnels, under tree lines, under small bridges and navigate around obstacles. By using the optical flow sensors a new technology of mind boggling proportions the tiny MAV would take send out pulses and capture images, as the next pulse sees the image again it is bigger, this way the tiny MAV can sense when it is really big and getting close so it can then fly around it. There are two ideas, one is to use a single sensor unit and the other is to use multiple sensors. If you have ever studied insects, how they fly and navigate, you can see the enormity of the mathematics and algorithms it takes to make all this happen. Here is how it all works you will have to read all of these papers to understand this concept and to continue such discussion;
Aluminum Oxide to Disrupt Laser Weapons
In a defensive move to eliminate communication of an enemy, an offensive system using a chemical laser would be a good idea. In manufacturing we have lasers, which coat materials so they can be combined or heat-treated in the application process. This process of depositing coatings by lasers is known in manufacturing as Direct Metal Deposition (DMD) is a generative laser process.
Bio-Rhythm Disruption Frequency Identifier for Human Intentions
It appears we have found many identifiers for Bio-Metrics to identify people. In this new age of International Terrorism with bad guys trying to get Pilot's Licenses, HazMat Driver's Licenses, get onto airlines, step onto buses and sneak over our borders we need a fool proof system. Currently we use fingerprints to identify criminals and those who hold important positions. Some of the newest forms of security include retina scans, voice prints, palms, DNA, Implanted RFID Chips, etc. We have devices, which can see thru trucks, pick up the scent of bio-weapons that use heat to pick-up illegal human trafficking inside vehicles. We need sensors to pick up human intent. Lying devices tell us when someone is exuding thru facial sweat glands, but what about a person who is not close to the device? Inside a vehicle, in a crowd or approaching a sensitive check point. Advanced warning could be the difference between life and death.
Controls - The Building Blocks of Automation
As man learns to make machines that no longer rely on animal or human power, he finds that he has to develop some means to manage and control them. Powerful machines let loosed by themselves will create havoc and destruction.
Secrets of The Mathematical Symmetry of Nature and Patterns of Erosion
As scientists and theorists study patterns, design, chaos, complexity they often turn to nature for examples and there is plenty of examples in nature too. The stripes on a zebra, patterns on a butterfly, spider webs, leafs on a tree, scales on a fish, seashells, brain waves, muscle structure, texture of granite, spider webs, Earth cycles, waves on the ocean, wind flow, clouds in the sky, Rainbows, Solar System, structure of a meteorite and even DNA itself.
Crop Circles and Genetic Knowledge
The crop circle enigma is not always a hoax. I am not able to see how someone could do a massive design overnight in the cases where the plants have their stems broken from within. Yes, that is the case in what I consider the real crop circles. The wheat or other plants have the stalk exploded from within and the stalks can be bent at a distance up the stalk which would not happen if the use of weighty rollers was applied to them. Thus we are able to speculate many things but I see no reason for it to be aliens or at least not a visit in physical form by extra-terrestrials.
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