Acne Information

Whats The Real Cause Of Acne?


Most acne medications only mask the symptoms of acne and does nothing to stop the real cause of acne. This is why people buy acne products month after month (year after year). And every time they stop using the product acne would come back again and again.

Acne & Wrinkles at My Age?


Puberty brought bouts of acne. In your 20s, finding Mr. or Mrs. Right was of chief consequence. When the 30s hit, you worked to raise little Johnnie or Suzie to be a model kid. Now that your hitting the fabulous 40s, you should be coasting through life, right. Well, why are you suddenly dealing with the cosmetic double whammy of acne and wrinkles? Even your insurance company figures that you should have gotten rid of acne by the age of 25.

Acne Solution


Million of people suffer from acne breakouts young and old. If your doctor has you on topical or oral treatment and it is not working try other ways to cure the breakouts.

Proven Acne Medications


There are a plethora of acne medications currently on the market. Some of these are prescription medications, such as accutane. Others are over the counter chemical compounds, such as benzoyl peroxide. There are even herbal based acne medications, such as tea tree oil. However, many of them are not as effective as advertised.

How to Choose an Over The Counter Acne Medication


There are literally hundreds of various treatments available to reduce acne. There is everything from all natural herbal remedies, to powerful chemical pharmaceuticals such as Accutane.

Herbal Acne Treatments That Work


In the United States alone, there are over 40 Million people who struggle with acne. Many of these people treat acne using chemicals such as antibiotics, prescription drugs, benzoyl peroxide, and salicylic acid.

Acne Home Remedy


Acne or pimples are caused by hormonal changes, wrong food habits and improper skin care. Acne remedies given below are based on herbs and natural ingredients that treat your acne like magic and help improve the skin disorders.

About Acne, itsTypes & Symptoms


What is Acne?

Shopping for Sensitive Skin: A Guide for the Acne and Rosacea Conscious


Acne and rosacea patients take note- you must know about proper skin-care and cosmetic usage to successfully manage your sensitive skin. This is the counsel of Dr. Diane Berson, who runs a dermatology practice in New York City.

The Kill the Bacterial and Cure the Acne Myth


All life forms strategize to survive and procreate. Weeds, worms, birds, fungi and bacteria all work to sustain their own lives on this planet. In fact, we humans survive because of the biological games constantly unfolding in our mist.

An Acne Fetish is No Laughing Matter


While it may be easy to scoff off an acne fetish with remarks like, ?I don?t have that problem,? this condition is more common than properly acknowledged. A fetish is an object of unreasonably obsessive attention or regard. Thus, extreme attention given to zits and pimples characterize an acne fetish. Two clinical forms of an acne fetish include excoriated acne and imagined acne.

Teenage Acne Revisited


- A lot has been written about the causes of teenage acne and still there does not appear to be consensus on this topic. However, it is becoming clear that it is a problem that needs to be treated from the inside as well as on the outside It is therefore necessary for the teenager to find products that treat the condition both internally and externally,

Are You Sure Your Diet Doesnt Affect Your Acne?


For those of you who have met me, you know I am often mistaken for being an 18 year old when in actuality I'm 27. I'm currently teaching after-school cooking classes in Brooklyn to middle school kids and I was mistaken for one of the students by an employee. I almost got in trouble for being in the hallway!

Why You Will Never Achieve Long-Lasting Acne Free Skin With The ?External? Acne Treatments Today


Most of the acne treatments out there just don?t have what it takes to get rid of acne.

Why Drinking Enough Water Can Help Keep Acne Away


You probably don?t know this yet but product wastes and toxic build up in your system is one of the main reasons why you have acne or why your skin breaks out.

More Articles from Acne Information:
2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16



Does my baby have acne or a rash? Diagnosis and treatment  Medical News Today

Baby acne can look similar to other types of rash, such as those of an allergic reaction, erythema toxicum, or eczema. In this article, we look at the symptoms of ...


This 'Miracle' Chinese Medicine Promises To Banish Adult Acne For Good  Glamour UK

Female adult acne is on the rise, but this 'miracle' Chinese medicine promises to banish breakouts for good.


FDA approves Sebacia for acne treatment  Dermatology Times

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved clearance for a new acne treatment that selectively targets sebaceous glands, according to a news ...


Face Masks for Acne - The Best Masks for Acne-Prone Skin  Seventeen.com

If you suffer from breakouts, check out these face masks that are perfect for acne-prone skin and will clear your pimples right up.


Top 4 Anti-Acne Foods  tophealthjournal.com

Who doesn't want clear skin free from acne? You would probably go to any extent to achieve that purpose. For certainly, pimples on the face disrupt the natural ...


Did Shakespeare Have Acne? What Historic Texts Can Tell Us About The Past  WAMU 88.5

As scientists begin to reexamine the pages of historic texts, they're learning remarkable things about the people who once handled these ancient documents ...


We Asked Dermatologists How to Treat All the Different Types of Acne Scars You Can Get  Fashionista

It's easy to feel betrayed whenever a pimple pops up your skin, but one thing that can worsen the blow is the scarring it leaves behind in its wake. It's almost like ...


6 Signs Your Adult Acne May Indicate A Greater Health Issue  Bustle

Unfortunately, breakouts aren't just something that happen when you are a teenager. Acne can happen at any age, and it's something you may have to manage ...


Why I Stopped Labeling My Acne as "Bad Skin"  Allure Magazine

With Allure's brand-new series See Yourself, See Each Other, we partnered with Ulta Beauty to share stories on representation, skin, hair, and identity to help ...


The 8 Best Foundations for Acne-Prone Skin, According to Dermatologists  Self

I spend a lot of time figuring out which makeup products will work best for my combination skin. Not only do I tend to have a super-shiny T-zone by lunchtime, but ...


Acne Face Wash Can Actually Make Your Breakouts Worse - Best Acne Face Wash  Cosmopolitan.com

In case you've wondered if your acne is making your skin worse, check out our investigation into whether or not sulfate-filled face washes can, in fact, make sure ...


Here’s Why You Get More Acne in the Winter — And How to Fix It  TIME

Pimples and acne can flare up in the winter, since your skin produces more sebum in dry, cold weather. Here's how to fight breakouts.


Make-up artist who had severe acne shows off her 'before' photos after a £25 toner cured her skin  Daily Mail

Alice Muir, of Edinburgh, spent hours covering her cystic acne with make-up, and wouldn't go outside bare-faced. After years of medication, a diet change and ...


Is Exfoliation Good For Acne? According To The Experts, The Answer Isn't A Simple One  Bustle

Anyone who has acne will know just how stressful the condition can be. Not only can it affect your physical appearance but also your confidence too. Whether ...


How to Use Acne Products on Black Skin for PIH and Scarring - Acne Scar Treatments for Dark Skin Tones  Cosmopolitan.com

Fact: Darker skin is more prone to hyperpigmentation, dark spots, and scarring. And your irritating acne products can actually make your skin a billion times ...


Acne Studios Launches Limited-Edition Home Line Inspired by Its Iconic Scarves  Architectural Digest

Known for hand-stitched details, the Swedish ready-to-wear fashion house Acne Studios designs everything from jeans to accessories. Now, they're taking that ...


This sell-out body scrub that helps tackle both cellulite and acne has made a return  woman&home

Cellulite and acne are a pain to deal with, but this miraculous body scrub claims to tackle both skin problems - and so it's no surprise that fans are going wild with ...


What to do about acne  Stuff.co.nz

First rule: Don't just dismiss zits as a teenage rite of passage.


Advent Calendar Day 10: Acne Studios x Fjällräven Expedition Down Jacket  HYPEBEAST

Acne Studios & Fjällräven's recent team-up resulted in a perfect blend of technical specs and fashion-forward design; this printed Expedition jacket is the jewel ...


Natural Treatments for Acne that Work  News-Medical.net

Acne is a common skin condition that will affect most individuals at some point during their lifetime. More severe cases may benefit from oral antibiotics and ...


Baby acne: Causes, diagnosis, and treatment  Medical News Today

Baby acne, or neonatal acne, affects around 20 percent of newborns. It usually clears up without treatment. Learn about the causes, symptoms, and similar ...


What Is Vaginal Acne, and How Do You Treat It?  Seventeen.com

Seventeen talked to Dr. Natasha Bhuyan, family physician at One Medical, all about vaginal acne. Here's what exactly these vagina pimples are, how to treat ...


Acne Studios Offers a Characteristically Cool Take on Home Goods  Vogue

This month, Acne Studios—a brand long known for its luxe basics, and distinctly Scandinavian sense of lo-fi cool—extends its reach to a new sphere: the home ...


Acne Diet Dos and Don’ts  News-Medical.net

Acne is a common skin condition which affects 80% of teenagers and one-fifth of adults in America. Although acne is known to be associated primarily with ...


Hyperpigmentation and Acne  News-Medical.net

Although skin problems are often associated with those in adolescence, there are several conditions which can affect anyone at any age. Acne is one of the most ...


Body acne common causes  INSIDER

Body acne can be uncomfortable and painful. From not showering after exercise to getting stressed out, here are the things that cause body acne.


14 Products Dermatologists Actually Use When They're Breaking Out  Refinery29

Because not even dermatologists are immune to breakouts.


Gold dust could replace pills for adult acne, dermatologists claim  Daily Mail

Dermatologists are using gold particles — together with a laser — to treat adult acne, and believe it has the potential to replace harsh drugs.


The 5 Best Moisturizers For Dry, Acne-Prone Skin  Bustle

Picking the right skin care products for dry, acne-prone skin can be tough. Most acne-fighting ingredients are intensely drying, and so many moisturizers are ...


Gold dust is the cure for adult acne  IOL

Gold dust skin therapy sounds like the kind of gimmicky, glittery face masks favoured by celebrities such as Kate Hudson and Stella McCartney.


Why some people get more acne in the winter  Global News

Breaking out in colder months? It could be a result of your cleansing routine.


Acne Studios launch homeware inspired by the brand's super cool scarves  Evening Standard

Cult Swedish brand Acne Studios knows its scarves. The block colour fringed woollen numbers were seen on all the most discerning of dressers in winter 2018, ...


Acne : 10 myths about Accutane  The Siver Times

Roaccutane ® is a treatment for severe acne, which today is no longer marketed under that name, but of which there are generic as Curacné ®, Procuta ® or ...


Micro-needling: Popular, low-cost way to treat acne scarring and aging skin  WLWT Cincinnati

There's a popular, low-cost way to treat acne scarring and aging skin, and the down time is only a day or two. Here's the catch: It involves a bunch of tiny needles ...


Acne Studios Launches Homeware Inspired By Signature Scarves  Vogue.co.uk

The limited-edition Acne Studios Homeware collection comprises an oversized blanket, two cushions and a selection of mugs inspired by particular iterations of ...


Mario Badescu Drying Lotion Review - Best Acne Treatments  Prevention.com

Mario Badescu Drying Lotion is one of the best acne treatments I've tried, and it's just $17 on Amazon. Learn how this calamine lotion for adult acne works.


7 Best Face Oils For Your Skin Type - Face Oils That Won't Cause Acne  Cosmopolitan.com

Face oils get a bad rep: so many of them are greasy, heavy, and just feel like they're hurting rather than helping. But, trust me, there's hope! Here are the 7 best ...


Baby Acne: How to Get Rid of Baby Pimples  New Idea

What is baby acne? Baby acne, sometimes referred to as neonatal acne, is a common skin condition which develops on an infant's face, usually the cheeks, chin ...


Surrey man called a 'zombie' after using steroid creams for his acne  Daily Mail

Matt Hess, 27, from Surrey, UK, was prescribed steroids at 21. Although they provided some relief, Mr Hess' skin came back worse than ever when he developed ...


How Olivia Wilde's Skin-Care Routine Completely Changed When She Turned 30  Refinery29

Including every product she uses in her clean, natural skin-care routine.


Skincare: The $22 skin treatment product that cured teen’s severe acne  NEWS.com.au

The skincare routines of high school students in 2018 are very different from what they used to be.


Olivia Wilde Shares How She Finally Got Rid Of Her Hormonal Acne — For Good  mindbodygreen.com

Olivia Wilde has the straight-shooting energy of a born rebel. She grew up listening to her parents, journalists Leslie and Andrew Cockburn, host dinner parties ...


Southampton teacher, 23, banishes severe cystic acne with £13 cream  Daily Mail

A teacher who says she spent thousands on medications and remedies during a 'hellish' six-year battle with cystic acne has credited a £13 cream with ...


Khloe Kardashian Shares Her Drugstore Skin-Care Products for Acne  Allure Magazine

Khloé Kardashian just revealed her go-to skin-care staples from the drugstore. The new mom took to her app to share the acne products she uses to keep her ...


Minocycline as foam topical under study in acne  Dermatology Times

Study shows novel minocycline foam appears to be effective in moderate to severe acne vulgaris and is well-tolerated in phase three trials.


This Drugstore Beauty Buy Banishes Body Acne Faster Than Anything Else I've Tried  Self

Even though I write about beauty and try the latest and greatest skin-care products, I face my share of acne—especially body acne, as I work out several times a ...


Victoria’s Secret Model Taylor Hill Posts Makeup-Free Selfie Showing Acne  Allure Magazine

Victoria's Secret Angel Taylor Hill shared makeup-free selfies on Instagram showing several pimples, and commenters shared how much they appreciated her ...


Dermatologists Urge Consumers to Treat Acne Early; American Academy of Dermatology  GlobeNewswire

Treating acne when it first appears can reduce severity, scarring and acne-related anxiety. ROSEMONT, Ill., Nov. 13, 2018 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Acne is the ...


The Best Face Serums for Adult Acne, According to Derms  Glamour

What's the best face serum for adult acne? Derms say the best acne serums are these eight picks. Read their reviews here.


Man, 27, labelled 'ZOMBIE' after steroid creams for acne made skin worse  Mirror Online

Matt Hess, 27, from Surrey, was prescribed steroid creams after many years of acne but while withdrawing, strangers would stare and shout abuse about his ...


Pet Talk | Animals and acne  Champaign/Urbana News-Gazette

By BETH MUELLER UI College of Veterinary Medicine. Acne plagues many teenagers and even adults, but did you know that animals get pimples too?


'Miracle' tablets promise to eradicate acne completely within EIGHT weeks  Daily Mail

Melbourne's leading Cosmetic Acupuncturist Dr Vivian Tam understands the struggle of acne having gone through years of chronic spots herself.


How to Get Rid of Acne Scars: 7 Options That Work!  InStyle

Painful acne scars are something we can all relate to. The good news is that there are several treatments available that will significantly reduce the visibility of ...


Clindamycin Phosphate/Benzoyl Peroxide Gel Effective for Acne in Darker Skin Tones  Dermatology Advisor

Treatment with a clindamycin phosphate 1.2% and benzoyl peroxide 3.75% gel (CL-BP 3.75%) results in significant reductions in the severity of facial acne, ...


Are Your Workouts Causing Butt Zits? You're Not Alone  Greatist

Oh, did you just assume acne was something you would kiss goodbye after your teenage years? Think again: Many adults experience breakouts on places other ...


Sarecycline approved for moderate-to-severe acne  Dermatology Times

Sarecycline (Seysara, Almirall, S.A.) has been approved for the treatment of non-nodular moderate-to-severe acne vulgaris in patients 9 years of age and older.


The best foundations for acne  image.ie

Tailor your makeup to cover acne whilst keeping your skin looking as light as possible. Read our picks of the best foundations for acne sufferers.


Teacher who spent thousands trying to cure cystic acne banishes spots using £13 cream  The Sun

A TEACHER who spent thousands of pounds desperately trying to cure her acne found a “cure” in the £13 cream. Mim Padgham had battled with cystic acne ...


Heal O’Israel, Treating Scabies, Flea Bites and Adult Acne  Breaking Israel News

Scabies is caused by a small mite called Sarcoptes scabiei. It is transmitted by contact with another infected individual and not transmitted by dogs / cats.


This is the anti-acne ingredient you’re missing in your skincare routine  VOGUE India - Before it's in Fashion, it's in Vogue

How to Use Sulphur to Treat Acne? Sulphur Skin Benefits - Sulphur is an antiseptic with antibacterial and anti-fungal properties. It gets rid of pore-clogging ...


Fitness fan, 38, ‘poisoned’ by acne drug Roaccutane which he says ruined his health, sex drive, and left him a ‘physical wreck’  iNews

Tom Shearer believes his health was destroyed by prescription drug Roaccutane, given to thousands of people each year.


The Major Mistake You're Making With Your Winter Skin-Care Routine  Refinery29

Here's what you need to know about how to winterize your skin-care routine — without breaking out.


Acne Studios' Scarves are Transformed into Limited Homeware Pieces  HYPEBEAST

Swedish imprint Acne Studios has issued a selection of special home goods inspired by its own scarves, utilizing the bold imagery as the base for a series of ...


This woman cured her severe acne in six weeks - and it cost £25  Somerset Live

Alice Muir, 21, used to dread leaving the house because of her skin condition.


Turmeric For Acne: Miracle Face Masks That May Help Keep Acne At Bay  NDTV News

Turmeric has been an intrinsic part of our food, traditional medicines and beauty rituals. Haldi, or turmeric, also has a rich history when it comes to skin care and ...


Forehead Acne: The Real Reason Behind It  Harper's BAZAAR

There are plenty of reasons behind why you're struggling with forehead acne, and here are your tips for fixing it.


Acne treatment, fire rescue among challenges targeted by FastTrack Accelerator  Penn State News

Nine teams have been selected from 30 applicants to Happy Valley LaunchBox powered by PNC Bank's FastTrack Accelerator. Student career success ...


How to Fight Acne and Dry Skin in Winter  TeenVogue.com

If your skin dries out in cold weather, winter months can be brutal. Two pros offer tips and products to rehab your angry skin.


Face Mapping Is Complete Garbage, According To This Dermatologist  Refinery29

Sugar face? Dairy face? Face mapping – the skincare trend taking the industry by storm – has hardly any basis, according to this dermatologist.


Khloé Kardashian Swears By This $10 Product for Clear Skin  NewBeauty Magazine

As a Kardashian, you'd expect Khloé's skin-care regimen to be a bunch of luxe products à la Le Mer style. But the reality star has some crazy affordable ...


Acure Brightening Facial Scrub Praised For Fighting Acne  Glamour UK

The affordable skincare product from Amazon has been praised for fighting spots and blackheads.


Dapsone gel may prove viable in truncal acne  Dermatology Times

Pilot study suggests topical gel effective as monotherapy for acne vulgaris of the trunk.


Khloé Kardashian Uses $9 PanOxyl Acne Face Wash for Breakouts  Cosmopolitan.com

Yes, celebrity Khloe Kardashian says that in addition to using drugstore Neutrogena makeup wipes, she uses a cheap, $9 acne face wash called PanOxyl ...


6 Natural Remedies To Get Rid Of Back Acne Once And For All  NDTV News

Acne is a skin a condition which can happen to anyone at any age. Acne mostly causes pimples, which can appear on any part of your body, including your back ...


17 super easy yet weird ways to get rid of acne and skin tags  Legit.ng

Legit.ng News ☆ Skin care routines are often viewed as expensive because only well off women can afford expensive oils and exfoliators. You see, for every ...


Best Face Mask for Acne - 7 Pimple Removing Face Masks  Marie Claire

When it comes to treating acne-prone skin, sometimes your daily skincare products just don't cut it. If your blemish-busting regimen is in need of extra ...


Acne is more common in winter… we reveal best treatments as snow threatens to hit UK next week  The Sun

IN the muggy, hot summer, it seems logical that you'd be prone to getting spots. But it turns out that you're actually more likely to experience acne breakouts in ...


Sponsor spotlight: Get a clearer complexion with Clear Skin Acne Facial  MLT News

Acne is the bane of many people's existences. It is an unwanted blemish that can look and feel unattractive. A Clear Skin Acne Facial is the answer to.


Why Am I Getting Late-Life Acne?  Newsmax

I have been blessed with clear skin all my life, but lately I have been getting large pimples — I think it's “cystic acne” — on my back. What's going on here?


Instagram taps Deloitte's Acne to get more users to love Stories  CampaignLive

Deloitte agency tasked with creating messaging to get more users to join Facebook-owned platform.


How to Finally Get Rid of Those Lingering Acne Scars  TotalBeauty.com

No one likes acne scars — in a lot of ways, they're even worse than the breakouts that caused them. Luckily, there are a lot of great remedies out there that'll ...


K-Pop Star Amber Liu Shares Acne Skin-Care Routine on YouTube  Allure Magazine

Amber Liu of K-pop group f(x) revealed her favorite skin-care products for fighting breakouts, including a Lush mask and $8 toner, on her YouTube channel.


Subclinical Acne Is the Worst—Here's How to Handle It  Greatist

Also known as comedonal acne, subclinical acne is superficial acne that is just below the skin. If these little bumps are stressing you out, here's what to do about ...


Chin Acne: Why You're Experiencing It  Harper's BAZAAR

Acne of any variation is a self-esteem dampener, and the root cause of it can often be a mystery—especially if it only haunts one single area of your face, and ...


Dear Dr Nina: I'm worried my daughter will have bad acne like me  Independent.ie

Question: I have an 11-year-old daughter and I am worried that she will suffer from the same dreadful acne that plagued me as a teen. I am now in my late 40s ...


Make-up artist who had severe acne shows off her ‘before’ photos after a £25 toner cured her skin  Brinkwire

A make-up artist who had severe acne shares her astounding 'before' photos after transforming her skin with a £25 toner. Alice Muir ruined her skin and was left ...


Here Are the 10 Best Face Masks for Acne Scars & Hyperpigmentation  HYPEBAE

Acne scars and hyperpigmentation can seriously disrupt a flawless makeup look. Sometimes our skin overreacts to trauma causing scars that can remain for ...


'I Tried A Glycolic Acid Peel For My Acne. Here's What Happened'  Women's Health

Here's what to expect from a glycolic acid peel, including side effects, results, and price, according to our beauty editor who tried it for the first time.


Acne Drugs Market Size Worth $5.9 Billion By 2025 | CAGR: 4.2%: Grand View Research, Inc.  PRNewswire

SAN FRANCISCO, November 15, 2018 /PRNewswire/ -- The global acne drugs market size is expected to reach USD 5.9 billion by 2025, according to a new ...


Acne Studios Debuts Its Eye-Catching FW18 Small Leather Goods Collection  HYPEBAE

Acne Studios officially debuts its Fall/Winter 2018 collection of small leather goods. The range features updated wallets, clutches and cardholders in addition to ...


Acne Studios' New Limited Edition Hand-Knit Wool Sweaters Are Very Nordic Cozy  HYPEBAE

Just in time for sweater weather, Acne Studios has unveiled the coziest range of hand-knit sweaters. The new knitwear range from the Swedish label's ...


Acne Studios Delivers a Colorful Range of Staples for Third Face Motif Collection  HYPEBEAST

Last month, Acne Studios delivered a capsule collection that celebrated the life and legacy of the exceptionally-talented and prolific musician Johnny Winter.


Global Anti Acne Cosmetics Market 2019 Industry Players: Clinique, DoctorLi, Vichy, Kose  Journal of Industry

Global Anti Acne Cosmetics Market is projected to reflect continued growth in the coming years as consumers are being more aware of product quality.


North America and Europe Phototherapy Treatment Market for Acne and Psoriasis Massive Growth U$ 2,465.8 Mn By 2027  Browse Live News

In the U.S., acne is one of the most common skin disorders among the teenage population. While topical or oral antibiotics remain the first-line treatment, more ...


Global Railroad Track Scales Market 2018 In-depth Study | Industry Revenue | Top Manufacturers  themarketmirror.com

The Global Acne Vulgaris Treatment Market Research Report gives a one of a kind instrument to assessing the Market, featuring openings, and supporting key ...


How to Recognize and Treat Baby Acne  Fatherly

Nobody want to see a blemish on their newborn, but baby acne is more common than many new parents might suspect.


Acne Studios Celebrates Its Nordic Roots With Hand-Knit Sweaters  Highsnobiety

Acne Studios pays homage to its Nordic roots with a new selection of handmade, limited edition sweaters. Find out more here.


Khloe Kardashian Swears by This $7 Makeup Remover and $9 Acne Cleanser  E! NEWS

Maintaining a clear complexion doesn't have to be expensive, according to Khloe Kardashian. While it's common knowledge that taking off your makeup before ...


Best Vaginal Acne Spot Treatments  TeenVogue.com

A dermatologist and a gynecologist weigh in on the best acne spot treatments for treating vaginal acne and pimples on your vagina.


9 Habits to Steal From People With Really Great Skin  Greatist

Smooth, glowing skin doesn't always come naturally, so we asked a handful of experts for their go-to skin care tips. Through research and a lot of trial and error, ...





home | site map
© 2005